WP6 Dissemination and Exploitation

Dissemination activities

  1. Putting together the Dissemination & Exploitation interim and final plan and corresponding Communication (Media) Plan
    • Drawing up and implementing a Communication (Media) plan to ensure extensive and positive coverage of the consortium in the national and international media; actively working with the consortium’s “outside” dissemination partners to achieve the project’s dissemination and communication goals;
    • Relatedly, writing together the Dissemination & Exploitation plan focusing more specifically on disseminating and opening up new knowledge and know how arising from SciCar
  2. Developing the project website
  3. Compiling mailing lists and contact databases (M1-3)
  4. Dissemination and communication
    • Working closely with WPs 2,3,4,5 to communicate and disseminate information about the courses and seminars, joint schools, the results of academic mobility, final conference, collaborative projects, etc.
    • Disseminating and communicating the scientific results of the project to diverse audiences, using a variety of tools and strategies, including the project website, mailing lists, events, Facebook, You-tube, social media, etc.
    • Organising a series of public dissemination events, such as best practice talks at schools, presentations at education and research fairs, panel discussions, White Paper presentations, etc.
    • Developing printed promotional materials introducing the consortium
    • Producing short (1-3-minute) multimedia clips to help disseminate and popularise the results of the project (conferences, collaborative projects, major publications, etc.). These will be linked to the project website, and posted on appropriate university platforms (UTTV, Youtube, etc.)
    • Collecting and analysing data about the effectiveness and reach of the communication and dissemination effort, as well as reactions and feedback to the project by stake-holders and user communities
  5. Organising a final research & dissemination conference


Academic journal articles

Re – UT

Dissertation defended, submission process supported by Sci Car

Articles which submission has been supported by SciCar experts

  • Chowdhury, T. B. M., Holbrook, J., & Rannikmäe, M. (2023). A model conceptualising trans-disciplinarity within school science education based on a systematic literature review. International Journal of Science Education, 1–23. DOI: 10.1080/09500693.2023.2281007
  • Semilarski, H., Soobard, R., Holbrook, J., & Rannikmäe, M. (2022). Expanding disciplinary and interdisciplinary core idea maps by students to promote perceived self-efficacy in learning science. International Journal of STEM Education9(1), 1-20. DOI: 10.1186/s40594-022-00374-8
  • Holbrook, J., Chowdhury, T. B. M., & Rannikmäe, M. (2022). A Future Trend for Science Education: A Constructivism-Humanism Approach to Trans-Contextualisation. Education Sciences12(6), 413. DOI: 10.3390/educsci12060413
  • Kõlamets, L., Kasuk, H., Holbrook, J., & Mamlok-Naaman, R. (2023). The Relevance of Learning Outcomes Included in Estonian Grade 7-9 Science Subject Curricula Associated with the Concept of Energy. Journal of Baltic Science Education22(4), 653-667. DOI: 10.33225/jbse/23.22.653
  • Rosin, T., Vaino, K., Soobard, R., & Rannikmäe, M. (2022). Examining Estonian science teachers’ beliefs about teaching and assessment. Cogent Education9(1), 2104472. DOI: 10.1080/2331186X.2022.2104472

Conference presentations

  • Chowdhury, T.B.M, Holbrook, J., Rannikmäe, M. (2024, March 17-20). Co-addressing Wicked Problems through Science Education and Culture: Insights from Ukraine, Estonia, Turkey, and Bangladesh [Conference presentation]. NARST 2024, Denver, The United States.

Abstract: In dealing with wicked problems, such as pandemics, war, economic inflation, refugee influx, plus natural disasters such as earthquakes or floods, culture is seen as playing a strong role in determining peoples’ responses. While school science education seeks to promote an awareness of, and even preparedness towards, dealing with wicked problems, the isolation of school science from culture can result in promoting an image of science within students as unaccounted for and unaffected by cultural experiences. In reducing this gap between science education and culture, this study seeks to identify teacher perceptions towards a combined role to be played by both science education and culture in co-addressing wicked problems. In so doing, this study takes into consideration four wicked problems – the current war in Ukraine, the recent earthquake in Turkey, a refugee influx into Estonia, and the reoccurring floods in Bangladesh. Through semi-structured interviews with 5 volunteer teachers from each country, the study explores teacher perceptions towards the roles played by culture and science education separately, and possible ways to combine these so as to promote a culturally relevant, responsive and adaptive science education orientation. The significance of this study lies in the multicultural nature of the research, seen as allowing the researchers to gain multicultural perspective from science teachers with first-hand experience related to wicked problems.

  • Teessar, J. (2024, March 17-20). Student Self-Efficacy: Exploring Anxiety, Career Awareness, and Transversal Skills in Science Education [Conference presentation]. NARST 2024, Denver, The United States.

Abstract: This research investigated students’ perceptions of their STEM education, focusing on their transversal skills, career awareness, science-related anxieties, and competence in core ideas. Using a sample of 133 students and deploying statistical analyses in SPSS, we identified five prominent factors encompassing Communication Skills, Information Synthesis, Collaboration, Problem-solving, and Adaptability, which collectively explained 63% of the observed variance. Results indicated higher anxieties associated with Chemistry and Physics compared to Biology and Geography. Notably, subject material complexity drove anxieties in the former, while teaching methodologies influenced the latter. Gender differences emerged in both subject anxiety and career preferences: males gravitating towards technical areas like IT and Engineering, while females showed inclinations towards Healthcare and Business. Variations were also evident across different schools, hinting at environmental or methodological influences. Students felt most competent in concepts like ‘Atoms and Molecules’, whereas themes like ‘Energy and Energetics’ proved more challenging. These insights underscore the importance of aligning teaching strategies with students’ intrinsic challenges and inclinations, and the potential benefits of tailored pedagogical interventions.

  • Kõlamets, L. (2024, March 17-20). Challenges in Latent Variables Test Development based on the Concept of Energy [Conference presentation]. NARST 2024, Denver, The United States.

Abstract: In science education, researchers propose four main components to characterise the concept of energy change as it impacts on our lives: energy as a source-form, energy is transferable, or can undergo transformation, energy is degradable, or capable of dissipation, and energy is conservable (Duit, 2014; Fortus et al., 2015; Herrmann-Abell & DeBohr, 2018; Neumann et al., 2013; Opitz et al., 2017, Park & Liu, 2016). In this study, we developed a conceptualization of the energy concept (CEC) test for 9th graders, emphasising the quality of each item and latent variables, and utilised non-direct psychometric measurements based on items under latent variables to measure students’ attained curriculum outcomes in CEC. The latent variable is a constructed variable that comes prior to the items of which we measure (Muthén, 2004).  The base to describe increasing cognitive complexity (Aufschnaiter & Aufschnaiter, 2003), was the 1st stage test model done with the SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) taxonomy (Biggs & Collis, 2014). 3D ET1 model had a low statistical indices, and the complexity was lowered to 2D model in ET2. 2nd stage model was supported with the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) 2019 Framework (Mullis et al., 2016), and Greca and Moreira (2002) physical and mathematical construct was added for distinguish the student answers.  Results largely supported a TIMSS 2019 Framework model test, which focused instead of all four energy concept components mostly on energy transfer and transformation (Kõlamets et al., 2023). However, the instrument still needs fine tuning, since the items seem to be too easy for students.

Kõlamets, during his presentation
  • Teppo, M. (2024, March 17-20). Perceived Competence and Choice as Predictors of Students’ Intrinsic Motivation [Conference presentation]. NARST 2024, Denver, The United States.

Abstract: A decline in student intrinsic motivation is an ongoing concern in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education, especially during adolescence. Based on self-determination theory (SDT), autonomy, competence as well as relatedness are seen as crucial psychological needs to be supported and satisfied for enhancing intrinsic motivation. This study examines associations between, students’ intrinsic motivation (in terms of interest/enjoyment), perceived competence, and perceived choice toward science learning over a three-year period. Data has been collected from 171 lower secondary school students who completed a self-reported questionnaire twice – first in grade 6 and three years later in grade 9. Structural equation modelling (SEM) shows that perceived choice has significantly positive effect both on intrinsic motivation and perceived competence in grades 6 and 9, however perceived competence has no predictive effect on intrinsic motivation not in either grade. Based on the results it is suggested to increase students’ intrinsic motivation by enabling more perceived choices in science learning, which in turn promotes the feeling of autonomy. 

  • Neito, R. (2024, March 17-20). Situational Interest and Perceived Relevance in Physics Learning Modules [Conference presentation]. NARST 2024, Denver, The United States.

Abstract: Promoting student’s interest in science is a critical aim of science education. When designing interest-promoting teaching modules, it is important to consider what is relevant to different student groups (e.g. boys and girls) and what kind of activities trigger situational interest. We examined how individual interest, perceived relevance and activities engaged in during lessons predict situational interest of students; if these activities can be distinguished based on interest and whether there is a difference in levels of interest and relevance between boys and girls. We designed two modules about thermodynamics, taught in the form of workshops, that emphasised usefulness of the topics in everyday life. We collected data on situational interest and perceived relevance using the experience sampling method with four measurements in each module. Results indicated only minor differences in relevance in one module and no difference in situational interest between boys and girls in either module. The best predictor of situational interest was perceived relevance and individual interest was a significant predictor in one module. The effects of different activities varied between modules. We discuss the implications and recommendations based on these results.

  • Rannikmäe, M. [chair]. (2023, August 28-September 1). Addressing Science-related Career Awareness through a Horizon 2020 Project Framework. [Symposium]. ESERA 2023 Conference, Cappadocia, Turkey.

Abstract: This symposium seeks to address a major concern related to the role of science researchers and the academic training of science education researchers, currently deemed insufficient to reflect on the combination of expertise needed in educational research, the making of science teaching careers attractive for students and the promoting of other science-related careers through encouraging attractive science teaching in schools. Academic training, offered to prospective teachers in science-related fields, is seen as needing to go beyond the science conceptualizations and reflect context-based approaches, responsible research and innovation (RRI) aspects, digital learning as well as assessment strategies, particularly with respect to combining these aspects with career awareness. The necessity to develop science-related competences, linked to promoting science-related career awareness, has acquired increasing leverage in the light of recent global socio-economic developments, calling for more sustainable, environmentally friendly, ecological solutions, etc. plus associated actions in all walks of life. A major objective is thus to create a centre of excellence for the Baltic and Eastern European countries, promoting science career awareness. This is especially the case as Universities have recognised that the number of students undertaking STEM-related teacher courses is declining and that the STEM teacher profession is not being made popular among graduates. The 1st paper focuses on the need to minimise the gap between the beliefs of scientists and those of science education staff, plus an appreciation of the need for greater understanding of the differences between science and science education research. The study seeks to create a validated staff development model, related to both science and science education researchers. The model is developed from undertaking a SWOT analysis, based on self-determination theory and being internationally evaluated. The 2nd paper draws attention to the need to examine the potential for tailoring learning materials to match the learners’ career aspirations and allowing them choose which career context is to be used for learning. To this end, it examines whether making science lessons more relevant to students’ career aspirations can increase their interest in science. Using a 3-armed approach to study the effect of learning chemistry in the context of a specific career, the paper discusses the implications of learning chemistry by choosing a career context in relation to personalized learning theory. The 3rd paper discusses the value of joint PhD seminars in science education through collaboration between three countries. Through the identification of common aims, the structure for a series of seminars is designed, based on research topics in PhD education. Within the seminars, the students prepare a four-page, draft research article, collaboratively review an article of a student from other country and then prepare a group seminar presentation based on the feedback. The students indicate that the international formal and informal collaboration most supported their learning as PhD students. The 4th paper recognises that an important goal of school science teaching and learning is to promote students’ willingness and preparedness for science-related careers. It further recognises that an important goal for school science teaching and learning is to promote students’ willingness and preparedness to be able to pursue science-related careers. The project seeks to determine students’ self-efficacy towards the gaining of transversal competences, seen as important for potential future science-related careers. The study seeks to identify the valued transversal competences, interconnections among the competences, and also students’ self-efficacy towards such competences, with respect to their recognition and value of science-related careers.

The Participants of SciCar Symposium at ESERA Conference
  • Rannikmäe, M., Lavonen, J., & Mamlok-Naaman, R. (2023, August 28-September 1). Developing and Evaluating a Model to Promote Science-Related Career Awareness – Minimizing the Gap Between the Science and Science Education Communities. In Rannikmäe, M. (chair), Addressing Science-related Career Awareness through a Horizon 2020 Project Framework. [Symposium]. ESERA 2023 Conference, Cappadocia, Turkey.

Abstract: Education systems worldwide strive to enable a capable workforce, yet universities recognize the declining interest among students in undertaking STEM-related teacher courses and the lack of popularity of STEM teacher profession among graduates. Seeking to minimize the gap between the beliefs of scientists and those of science education staff plus an appreciation of the need for greater understanding of differences between science and science education research, a staff development model is developed from undertaking a SWOT, based on self-determination theory and internationally evaluated. The model is geared to both science and science education researchers, having a focus on promoting STEM related career awareness among STEM students. Outcomes, based on staff interviews, indicate science staff gain a greater conceptualization of science education, especially in promoting career awareness and also an appreciation of differences between science and science education research, while science education staff gained a greater awareness of updated science trends.

  • Chowdhury, T. B. M., Teessar, J., Rannikmäe, M., & Soobard, R. (2023, August 28-September 1). Transversal Competences for Science-Related Careers: Dimensions, Interconnections and Students’ Self-Efficacy. In Rannikmäe, M. (chair), Addressing Science-related Career Awareness through a Horizon 2020 Project Framework. [Symposium]. ESERA 2023 Conference, Cappadocia, Turkey.

Abstract: An important goal of school science teaching and learning is to promote students’ willingness and preparedness for science-related careers. In so doing, there is a need to promote competences which extend beyond disciplinary boundaries and enable students to resolve complex problems with an integrated set of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes (i.e., transversal competences). The purpose of this research is to identify school students’ self-efficacy towards transversal competences for potential future science-related careers. In so doing, the research develops an instrument which is built on a transversal competence framework. Expert validation, Cronbach Alpha and confirmatory factor analysis are sought through a pilot study to establish the validity and reliability of the instrument. The implication of this study relates to identifying the transversal competences, interconnections among the competences, and also students’ self-efficacy towards such competences with respect to their science-related careers. The significance of the study is a theoretically justified instrument, which is valid, reliable and usable in future research in different contexts.

  • Lavonen, J., Soobard, R., & Rannikmäe, M. (2023, August 28-September 1). Capacity Building in Science Education Research Through Joint International PhD Seminars. In Rannikmäe, M. (chair), Addressing Science-related Career Awareness through a Horizon 2020 Project Framework. [Symposium]. ESERA 2023 Conference, Cappadocia, Turkey.

Abstract: This article discusses the development of joint PhD seminars in science education in collaboration with three countries. First, common aims and structure for an international PhD seminar series were designed based on research on PhD education. The students prepared four-page draft research article, reviewed an article of a student from other country and then prepared a seminar presentation based on the feedback. During the seminar there were a couple of plenaries and PhD students’ presentations. The students work also as opponents. The program was designed in way there were several possibilities for networking and informal learning together with other students and supervisors. The students were asked to evaluate their learning through answering a questionnaire, which was designed according to research on formal and informal learning as a part of formal PhD studies. Moreover, the students were interviewed. The students emphasized that international formal and informal collaboration supported most their learning as a PhD student.

  • Feldman-Maggor, Y., Hirsh-Sameach, T., Alexandron, G., Blonder, R (2023, August 28-September 1). Learning Chemistry Through a Career-Focused Context: Letting Students Choose in Order to Improve their Interest. In Rannikmäe, M. (chair), Addressing Science-related Career Awareness through a Horizon 2020 Project Framework. [Symposium]. ESERA 2023 Conference, Cappadocia, Turkey.

Abstract: Teaching strategies that implement a Personalizing Learning approach usually aim to match
learning materials to students’ different cognitive abilities. The goal of this research was to examine the possibility of tailoring learning materials to match learners’ career aspirations and letting them choose which career context they want to use for learning. To this end, we examined whether making science lessons more relevant to students’ career aspirations could increase their interest in science. We designed a three-armed controlled study to determine the effect of learning chemistry in the context of a specific career. Students in GroupA were free to choose one out of four optional career contexts (medical doctor, nutritionist, engineer, or artist) through which they could study ionic materials. Students in GroupB were randomly assigned a career context, whereas students in GroupC learned traditional chemistry lessons with no connection to a specific career context. To evaluate students’ interests, we used two theoretical frameworks: The first is a 4-phase model of interest development: it triggered situational interest, maintained situational interest, triggered emerging individual interest, and developed individual interest. The second framework is the science self-concept theory. Students completed a pre-post questionnaire to evaluate their career aspirations, their level of interest in chemistry, and their self-concepts in chemistry. The preliminary results from a pilot study of 205 students indicated that situational interest increased for students in both Group A and Group B. However, the findings also indicated that when students learn through their career aspiration interest, interest in learning chemistry increases in a few dimensions and not only in situational interest. In this symposium session, we will present results from the complete study, which is still under analysis. Finally, we will discuss the implications of learning chemistry by choosing a career context in relation to personalized learning theory.

  • Neito, R. (2023, August 28-September 1). Measuring situational interest in physics workshops: findings and challenges [Conference presentation]. ESERA 2023 Conference, Cappadocia, Turkey.

Abstract: Studies have shown a positive correlation between interest and achievement of learning outcomes (Rotgans & Schmidt, 2011, Krapp & Prenzel, 2011). In this pilot study, the focus is on situational interest because it 1) is the basis for individual interest, 2) is dynamic and 3) is susceptible to external factors. Lavonen et al. (2021) have found that different physics instructional activities predict situational interest levels for upper secondary students. However, activities involving practical work have been criticised as being ineffective in their current form for teaching because often the focus is on replicating a research design according to a manual instead of making sense of a scientific phenomenon (Abrahams & Millar, 2008). Nguyen et al. (2018) have found that group work can also increase interest in the topic. Furthermore, girls have a tendency to be less interested in subjects such as physics and chemistry than boys (Häussler et al., 1998). There are many difficulties associated with measuring interest: what method and measurement scale to use (Rintala et al., 2019), how frequently and with how many items it should be measured (Eisele et al., 2020) and what factors to consider that could be influencing the interest that is measured (Christidou, 2011). The main goal of this study was to pilot the designed instrument for measuring situational interest, sub goals included determining which of the measured variables predict situational interest and what issues might be encountered during measurement.

Rauno Neito at ESERA conference
  • Teppo, M. (August 20-26). Changes in students’ interest, perceived competence and perceived choice towards science learning – comparing students’ perceptions in grades 6 and 9 [Conference presentation]. EARLI 2023 Conference, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to examine on a long term-setting the change in and associations between students’ interest, competence and choice towards science learning being components of intrinsic motivation based on self-determination theory. Data were collected twice – at first when students were in grade 6 and secondly after three years when the same students were in grade 9. A sample of 171 lower secondary school students completed the self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis was used identify the possible changes and relationships between interest, competence and choice. The results indicated a significant decrease in students’ competence, although not in interest, nor perceived choice change towards science learning on comparing outcomes from grades 6 and 9. Correlation analysis showed strong positive relationship between competence and interest among students answers in both grades. Results and implications for science learning at lower secondary level will be discussed during the presentation.

  • Chowdhury, T.B.M, Holbrook, J., Rannikmäe, M. (August 22-25). A Model Conceptualising Trans-disciplinarity within School Science Education: based on a Systematic Literature Review [Conference presentation]. ECER 2023, Glasgow, The United Kindom.

Abstract: While a trans-disciplinary approach has been suggested within school science learning to facilitate the role of science education for societal development, lacking is a conceptualisation with respect to what trans-disciplinarity is, why it is needed, and how it can potentially be implemented in the classroom. In seeking to address this limitation, this study undertakes a systematically literature review of research articles published between 2011-2022, within the scope of trans-disciplinarity at school level science education. The 5 key transdisciplinary attributes are identified as – complexity, liberation, inclusion, transcendence beyond education and reflection, leading to the identification of 12 key dimensions of trans-disciplinarity. Based on this finding, a model is put forward with respect to implementing trans-disciplinarity within school level science teaching-learning, incorporating all identified dimensions as an approach towards addressing wicked problems within the society. The significance of this study lies on the conceptualisation of trans-disciplinarity in a holistic sense, so as to address a wider societal development through school science education.

  • Kõlamets, L. (2023, July 2-8). Energy concept course design principles in science education [Conference presentation]. 20th ESERA Summer School, Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Germany.
  • Saarna, R. (2023, July 2-8). Assessing the teachers’ perceptions of sustainability literacy at upper secondary school [Conference presentation]. 20th ESERA Summer School, Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Germany.

Abstract: Societies today are characterized by various global sustainability problems, such as climate change, poverty, and loss of biodiversity, that pose serious challenges for humanity. Sustainable development is being seen as an important area of concern.  Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) seeks to promote and improve the quality of sustainability education which is directed to the acquirement of knowledge, skills and values for sustainability. The goal of ESD is to achieve higher sustainability literacy (SuL). In order to increase the effectiveness of ESD and to enhance SuL, it is necessary to bridge the gap in perceptions of sustainable development education both in the students and teachers. With sustainability concepts becoming increasingly included in school learning objectives there is a growing recognition of a way to measure students and teachers perception of sustainability literacy.  For this doctoral thesis a mixed methods research design is used to assess the teachers perception of sustainability at secondary school. A systematic literature review was conducted in order to get an overview of the research done on the field of sustainability assessment. The focus of the literature review was to identify the research carried out using various assessment tools on sustainability literacy, the conceptualization of sustainability literacy as bases for the instruments and their validation.

  • Rosin, T. (2023, July 2-8). Science teachers’ beliefs about teaching and assessment of students’ scientific competences [Conference presentation]. 20th ESERA Summer School, Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Germany

Abstract: The goal of the doctoral thesis is to better understand science teachers’ beliefs about teaching and assessment of scientific competences, as highlighted by the Estonian national novel science e-test. The thesis is mainly based on four theoretical frameworks: Scientific competences (Pedaste et al., 2017); Approaches to teaching (Cuban, 2007; Trigwell, 2012; Fives et al., 2015); Teacher Conception of Assessment (Brown, 2008) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 2005). It consists of three studies: The first study used a qualitative research method with 15 science teachers to determine the extent to which teachers’ existing beliefs about competence-based science e-tests (CBSeT) enabled them to use the feedback received in their practise. The second study used a quantitative research method with 319 science teachers to create a model that would show how science teachers’ beliefs about teaching and assessment are related. The third study employed a qualitative research method with four science teachers to better understand how teachers’ existing beliefs about teaching and assessment of scientific competences support their agency to improve teaching through science e-test feedback. The findings of the third study are intended to clarify how the second study’s model of science teachers’ beliefs about teaching and assessment and the first study’s three profiles of “science teachers” are related. As a general result of the studies, science teachers’ belief profiles should be identified to explore factors that influence the use of e-test feedback for developing student’s scientific competences. These studies’ findings may raise awareness in science education about the importance of taking teachers’ belief systems into account when developing educational innovations.

Triin Rosin at ESERA Summer School
  • Mamlok-Naaman, R. (2022, November 6-11). Women in chemistry [Conference presentation]. Malta 10, Frontiers in Science – Innovation, Research and Education in the Middle East, A Bridge to Peace, St. Julian, Malta.

Abstract: Women continue to represent a small proportion of faculty members in science and technology programs, especially in more prestigious research institutions (Mamlok-Naaman, 2021). They still need to cope with discrimination, with an unconscious bias, as well as with the demands of their families. According to UNESCO institution of Statistics, fewer than 30% researchers all over the world are women. The analysis of “A Global Approach to the Gender Gap in Mathematical, Computing, and Natural Sciences, How to measure it? How to reduce it?” survey, contributed to the understanding of this phenomenon and to the identification of the various factors causing it. The recommendations address a variety of groups: instructors and parents of girls in primary, secondary, and higher education; educational organizations; Scientific Unions and other worldwide organizations. This presentation will deal with the situation of women scientists in Israel, with examples of women chemists in academia, as well as in the SciCar project.

  • Mamlok-Naaman, R. (2022, August 28 – September 1). Women in chemistry – in Scientific Careers (SciCar) Horizon Project [Conference presentation]. 8th EuChemS Chemistry Congress (ECC8), Lisbon, Portugal.
Rachel Mamlok-Naaman at 8th EuChemS Chemistry Congress (ECC8)

Abstract: Despite about 50% of the world’s human population being female, carrying undeniable potential to participate in social, scientific and economic development, women continue to be significantly underrepresented in almost every high-profile human activity, including science. Even in countries where women have been widely integrated into these high-profile human activities, they frequently only occupy supporting positions or are underpaid compared to the men who perform the same role. Currently in science, approximately 30% of the researchers worldwide are women, due to longstanding bias and gender stereotypes that discourages females from science related fields, in particular STEM research. This is important to address as UNESCO to be vital for sustainable development outlines science and gender equality. This presentation will deal with the situation in the world, with examples of women chemists in academia, as well as in the SciCar project.

  • Rannikmäe, M. (2022, July 11-13). Assessing students scientific literacy levels using science competence driven e-testing method [Conference presentation]. 15th European Conference on Research in Chemical Education, Rehovot, Israel

Abstract: PISA results show that students’ motivation to learn and their efficacy beliefs are important factors in determining test results. Studies determining students’ SL at the age of 15, against a PISA-defined “working” definition, have shown Estonian students achieve high scores. However, LoTeGum study has shown that students’ higher order cognitive skills change little during gymnasium studies and that students’ self-efficacy towards science subject studies is low. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that actual classroom science teaching is lagging behind the thrust towards a competence focus associated with SL. Utilising a theoretical framework, utilising an e-testing platform, determining cognitive levels of SL (and mathematics), has been developed in Estonia in which testing occurs at different school levels, allowing evaluative feedback on curricula-related, student cognitive levels. However, to respond to society/workforce needs, there is a need to expand the context of e-testing e.g. add self-evaluative components enabling a correlation between curriculum-related learning and students’ perceived self- competence to further promote the wider vision of SL.

Miia Rannikmäe at 15th European Conference on Research in Chemical Education
  • Rannikmäe, M. (2022, July 11-13). Evaluating the effectiveness of SciCar project- impact of the first year [Conference presentation]. 15th European Conference on Research in Chemical Education, Rehovot, Israel

Abstract: SciCar – a science education project – addresses the need to systematically raise the level of expertise among researchers and educators who are involved in science & technology (S&T) education within UT and associated institutions, currently seen as ineffective in making science teaching careers attractive and enabling teaching to adopt more relevant context-based approaches. The project especially addresses, via a Twinning partnership, bringing in expertise from top-level science education countries – Israel and Finland, particularly focusing on enhancing career awareness, enabling a capable workforce, and on promoting science-related careers. This is seen as enabling appropriate models for enacting a change of paradigm related to teacher education and science career awareness. A major focus is put on (1) reducing the gap between scientist and science educator beliefs in the training emphasis of future STEM-related teachers, (2) the involvement of the science education community in making the teaching profession more attractive, (3) thus determining keyways & appropriate models for instituting a paradigm change with a view increasing the number of STEM-related teachers, (4) and giving emphasis to competence development in promoting science-related career awareness. The project seeks to identify best practice on knowledge transfer between science development and science education.

  • Kõlamets, L. (2022, July 11-13). Lower Secondary School Science Syllabus Energy Concept Learning Outcome Analysis in Estonia [Conference presentation]. 15th European Conference on Research in Chemical Education, Rehovot, Israel.
Lauri Kõlamets at 15th European Conference on Research in Chemical Education
  • Mamlok-Naaman, R. (2022, July 18-22). What does Research in Science Education say about students learning? [Conference presentation]. 26th IUPAC International Conference on Chemistry Education (ICCE 2022), Cape Town, South Africa.

Abstract: Different ideologies and different research agenda led to the development of research tools that try to assess science students’ learning. The challenges and big questions which literature research explores, and which will be included in this presentation refer to students, to the curriculum according which they are taught, and to the science teachers. Research about students’ learning will consist of examples such as (1) cognitive and affective skills, (2) motivation vs. learning difficulties, and (3) misconceptions and alternative conceptions. It is connected to the curriculum as well, by asking questions such as: Is it relevant to students’ lives? Is it up-dated according to scientific and technological discoveries? Society is constantly changing, scientific knowledge is accumulating owing to new discoveries and innovations, and information and communication technologies (ICT) became an intrinsic part of our lives. The challenges for teaching and learning science increase, and teachers should receive sustained support in order to gain knowledge of different teaching strategies and of assessment skills. This can be done by attending professional development workshops that deal with those topics, which will consequently stimulate their creativity and diversify their instructional strategies in the classroom. Such skills should improve their ability to teach and understand their students learning difficulties, since they will better understand the goals, strategies, and rationale of the curriculum. In the presentation, there will also be an example of how the active learning for which we strive in order to stimulate and motivate students towards developing of scientific literacy, also stimulates and motivates the teachers. The example refers to one of the objectives of “Addressing Attractiveness of Science Career Awareness (SciCar)”, an EU-funded project: To reflect the combination of expertise in educational research, making science-teaching careers attractive, and promoting science-related careers through encouraging attractive science teaching in schools.

  • Mamlok-Naaman, R. (2020, November 19-22). Inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning science [Conference presentation]. 2nd International Conference on Science, Mathematics, Entrepreneurship and Technological Education, Zoom.

Abstract: The National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996, 2012; Achieve, 2013) reaffirm the conviction that inquiry is central to the achievement of scientific literacy. The National Science Education Standards use the term inquiry in two ways (Lunetta, Hofstein & Clough, 2007; Bybee, 2000): (1) inquiry as content understanding, in which students have opportunities to construct concepts, patterns, and to create meaning about an idea in order to explain what they experience, and (2) inquiry in terms of skills and abilities. Under the category of abilities or skills, Bybee (2000) includes identifying and posing scientifically oriented questions, forming hypotheses, designing and conducting scientific investigations, formulating and revising scientific explanations, and communicating and defending scientific arguments. It is suggested that many of these abilities and skills are in alignment with those that characterize inquiry-type laboratory work, an activity that puts the student in the center of the learning process. A few projects will serve as examples, e.g., Scientific Career (SciCar), in the framework of Horizon

Non-scientific non-reviewed publications


Media Release



The SciCar project website has 2 parts (a) open (b) closed (for partners only)

 (a) the website  www.scicar.eu 

Re UT website: www.ut.ee

Re-UH: www.helsinki.fi

Re. Weizmann

www.weizmann.ac.il/ScienceTeaching/research-and-development/chemistry/projects/1264 (English) and www.weizmann.ac.il/ScienceTeaching/he/research-and-development/chemistry/projects/addressing-attractiveness-science-career-awareness- (Hebrew)